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Indus Valley Civilization

 

Indus Valley Civilization It is one of the earliest human civilizations, dating from 3300 to 1700 BC. It started in the plains of the Indus Valley on the banks of the Indus and its tributaries. It is also called the Harappan civilization. Harappa andMoenjodaro was its main center. Traces of this civilization have also been found on the banks of the Sawan River.

Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization


 This civilization of the Indus Valley is one of the earliest civilizations in Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, as well as the largest ancient civilization in the world. Which was spread over an area of ​​1,260,000 square kilometers. Remains have been discovered in Mumbai in the south, India, and the Himalayas in the north, as far as Afghanistan. At its height, the Indus Valley Civilization had a population of about 5 million people. Traces of this civilization remained hidden until they were discovered in the early twentieth century.

Due to the fertility of the land around the Indus River, farming and herding were the mainstays of the economy. The presence of warehouses in Moenjodaro and Harappa indicates the overproduction of crops. The people of the Indus River were the first to cultivate cotton to make cloth. Trade was also a part of the economy. Cotton cloth, which is called cotton in English, was invented by him and the word cotton is derived from his word katana. Sugar and chess are invaluable gifts of this civilization to the world. They traded with Mesopotamia, southern India, Afghanistan, and Iran.

The inhabitants of this civilization used to build houses with bricks. They had bullock carts, they made cloth from wheels and khadi, they were experts in making pottery, farmers, weavers, potters, and masons were the architects of the Indus Valley Civilization.

The wealth of the Indus Valley Civilization has attracted people for thousands of years.

The foundations of civilization in the world 5,000 years before Christ, if found anywhere, is the land here. In 1922, the modern city of Moenjodaro was discovered in the Larkana district of Sindh, 400 km from Karachi.

The planning and construction of this city took the experts by surprise. A city with a sanitation system, a road system, a special home design, a university, a pottery industry, a trading system, a drainage system - all had their own example.

 Experts also named it the Bronze Age because of the metal objects found on the 2,500-acre Moenjodaro site. The most important thing in the construction of this city that distinguishes it from other contemporary civilizations is its drainage system, ie drainage system, and roads.

 The water from the houses enters the main street the line through small drains and then the big drains from the streets flow into the waste area through a slightly larger drain made on the main street.

Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization


A clear sign of hygiene and health awareness in this age is the clogging of these ducts. In the same way, without the nakedness of the houses, the door of every house opens in a short alley at an angle of ninety degrees and then the streets which open on a wide road.

For the first time in the world, the concept of the Great Bath was discovered here. Experts speculate that bathing, washing, and hygiene were very important for this great brick bathroom.

 This element is not found in any civilization of this period. The city is divided into two parts and no construction has been found that gives the address of a king, queen, or any other ruler.

 The artifacts found here show that the city had a very important commercial reputation at that time and the Indus River as well as dry roads were used for transportation.

 What was their religion?

 There is still speculation in this regard, but no clear evidence has been found. A small statue has been found which some call the King-Priest, but what was the significance of this statue in this civilization? To this day, no final decision has been made.

 One of the oldest inscriptions, a pictorial inscription, with 400 to 600 different symbols, has been discovered from various places in Sindh. These inscriptions have appeared mostly on seals.

 Thousands of seals have been excavated with images of bulls, erna buffaloes, rhinos as well as imaginary creatures, such as a horned horse (unicorn). So far the scholars have not been able to read these passages in full because apart from the possibility that it was an ancient Dravidian language, it is not entirely clear which language was spoken by the people of Sindh.

People's Clothing: --

The idols found here show that the people of this era used to wear garments of woven cloth. Men dressed especially in clothes, imitate them. The bottom of the body was wrapped in the right arm and left on the left side of the left arm, the most important thing is to wear such a dress on the occasion of pilgrimage. If you see the other statues, the appearance of cloth is like a wash on the bottom of the body. Current wear in male wear can be seen in Sindh. The deceased is still worn in the village of Larkana or in the northern part of Sindh, apart from the people of Suryaikee, and people of Punjab also wash their clothes and the same is the same as Bengali people. This means that even during the time, Dhaka is worn throughout India, including Sindh.

Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization



Women's Clothing: -

Women wear their clothes in two ways, one is like a statue of King Prestige, wrapping the bottom of the cloth body, leaving the bottom arm, and left behind the hollow side. So far, this continuation appears to be a snake in the whole of India. And the other way was that the cloth was wrapped down, a belt was tied to the waist. On the lower part of the body, the cloth is wrapped up, as it is called a skirt in the present period, and a body was made covered by the body on the top of the body. Screens like this appear in Europe and the tradition of washing is still in Punjab women.

Located at the confluence of the Indus river between 1800 and 1700 BC, no definitive opinion has emerged as to how this magnificent Indus Valley Civilization declined. However, historians believe that this decline may be due to a combination of factors such as a course of the Indus River and climate change, frequent floods, earthquakes and epidemics, and attacks by Indo-Aryan tribes from the north.

 

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